Contributor: Gordon K. Klintworth
Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic systemic disease associated with disturbances in carbohydate metabolism. It has many causes and the clinical manifestations include hyperglycemia, glycosuria, polyuria, thirst, weight loss, polyphagia and impaired oxidation of lipid. Two main types of diabetes mellitus are recognized: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [diabetes mellitus - insulin dependent] and non-insulin dependent diabetes [diabetes mellitus - non-insulin dependent]. Complications of diabetes mellitus are largely the result of the severity of the disease and the chronicity of the hyperglycemia. The complications include coma, diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, atherosclerosis (coronary atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular occlusovascular disease), diabetic neuropathy, renal disease (glomerulosclerosis, necrotizing papillitis), bacterial and fungal infections (including zygomycosis and pyelonephritis). Diabetes mellitus is a manifestation of many disorders including lipodystrophy.